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Autore: Alessandro
35112 1/35 “超级犀牛”Sd.Kfz.164 “Nashorn”(配边境BT-024) 

35112 1/35 “超级犀牛”Sd.Kfz.164 “Nashorn”(配边境BT-024) 

Nashorn (German: [ˈnaːsˌhɔɐ̯n], German for “rhinoceros”), initially known as the Hornisse (“German “hornet”), was a German Panzerjäger (“tank hunter”) of World War II. It was developed as an interim solution in 1942 by equipping a light turretless chassis based on the Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks with the 8.8 cm Pak 43 anti-tank gun. Although lightly armored and high profile, it could penetrate the front armor of any Allied tank at long range, and its relatively low cost and superior mobility compared to heavier vehicles ensured it remained in production until the end of the war.

After the first German experiences with new Soviet tanks such as the T-34 medium tank or the Kliment Voroshilov heavy tank during Operation Barbarossa, the need for a Panzerjäger capable of destroying these more heavily armored tanks became clear.

In February 1942, the Alkett (Altmärkische Kettenwerke GmbH) arms company of Berlin designed a tank destroyer using their recently developed Geschützwagen III/IV chassis which, as indicated by the name, used components from the Panzer III and Panzer IV medium tanks. The 8.8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/1 L/71 (PaK 43/1) [3] [4] a long-barreled anti-tank gun (also used, like the 8.8 cm KwK 43, for the main armament of the Tiger II tank) was mounted on the rear of the chassis complete with gun shield, and an open superstructure was built around the gun to give some protection to the crew. The gun had the same traverse and elevation as if it had been on the carriage: 15° on both sides and between -5° and +15° of elevation. To accommodate the long, heavy gun, the hull had to be lengthened and the engine moved from the rear to the center of the chassis. The amount of armor provided for the crew compartment was limited. The shielding provided was adequate to protect the crew from explosions and small arms fire, but not from armor-piercing shells. Therefore, like the Marder series, the vehicle was not intended to engage in tank combat, but to provide mobility to a powerful anti-tank gun.

This model was presented for approval to Adolf Hitler in October 1942 and went into production in early 1943. It had numerous official designations, such as 8.8 cm Pak 43 (L/71) auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen III/IV ( Sf) or 8.8 cm Pak 43 (L/71) auf Geschützwagen III/IV (Sd. Kfz. 164), although it was also known as Panzerjäger Hornisse (English “Hornet tank destroyer”)

In the first half of 1943 a new model of the Hornisse was introduced into production. This model modified the driver’s front armor, along with other minor differences. This model and its predecessor, the few early production vehicles, were almost indistinguishable. It was renamed Nashorn by Hitler in 1944.[citation needed]

Total production of the Nashorn amounted to approximately 494 vehicles, most of which were built in 1943. In January 1944, Hitler favored the production of a new fully casemated tank destroyer, the Jagdpanzer IV, which had a much lower silhouette and armor thicker front. (60mm front plate) and an effective if less powerful 7.5cm cannon. While still primarily an ambush weapon, this vehicle was better built for armored engagements. Production of the Nashorn continued until 1945, albeit at a slow pace.